HomeMicrobiologyPipette- Precept, Components, Sorts, Process, Makes use of, Examples

Pipette- Precept, Components, Sorts, Process, Makes use of, Examples

A pipette is a lab machine used to measure out or dispense small quantities of liquid in volumes of milliliters (mL) or microliters (μL).

The identify “pipette” is derived from the French phrase “pipette,” which implies “small pipe”. Pipettes are available in three fundamental varieties: glass, plastic, and digital. Glass pipettes are constructed of borosilicate glass, plastic pipettes are product of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and microprocessors run digital pipettes. Pipettes product of plastic and glass are generally used to measure volumes below 1 milliliter (mL).

The smallest quantity measured with an digital pipette is 0.1 microliters (μL). Pipettes usually begin at 1 milliliter, whereas micropipettes have a measurement vary of 1 to 1000 µl. It’s employed in a variety of experiment procedures in chemistry, molecular biology (biotechnology), medical analysis, experiments within the normal discipline of pure science, evaluation of meals and chemical compounds, meals security inspections, and scientific examination inspections.

Precept of Pipette

The pipette’s working precept relies primarily on two mechanisms, specifically, the air displacement technique and the optimistic displacement technique. Every sort of pipette has a piston that strikes inside a capillary or cylinder. A certain quantity of air is left between the piston and the liquid in air displacement pipettes. In optimistic displacement pipetting, the piston makes direct contact with the fluid.

Air displacement technique: The telescoping motion of the spring allows the piston to suction and discharge liquids. In response to the piston’s push, some air is set free, the liquid is drawn in by atmospheric strain, and the air is subsequently compelled out to launch the liquid. Due to this, it’s potential to handle the tempo and drive of the pipetting whereas utilizing a pipette as a result of it’s operated utilizing the spring’s growth and contraction traits. It’s largely employed for pipettes.

Optimistic displacement technique: Repeated pipettes or specialised optimistic displacement pipettes continuously make use of the optimistic displacement precept. Direct contact with the liquid is made by a disposable piston that strikes contained in the tip. The pattern is then drawn into the tip by the piston’s upward motion (Air cushion is absent as with air displacement pipettes). Because the piston descends, the chosen quantity is discharged.

Components of Pipette

Parts of Pipette
Essential elements of a Pipette

A number of elements of the pipette are described beneath:

Plunger: It’s used to aspirate and dispense the specified quantity of liquids.

Ejector button: It causes the metallic bar to descend, ejecting the pipette tip.

Quantity Adjustment Knob: The amount of the pattern to be transferred may be set by rotating the quantity adjustment knob to extend and reduce the focus. It can’t be rotated in a fixed-volume pipette.

Quantity window: It shows the set quantity, and the place values proven rely upon pipette measurement.

Shaft: It’s a tube-like construction full of air in an air displacement pipette.  When the piston is pressed, some air from the shaft is launched, aiding in liquid aspiration. In distinction, releasing the piston aids in liquid shelling out whereas refilling the shaft with air.

Tip cone: It’s the space the place the pipette tip is connected.

Pipette tip: It’s a piece of kit product of polypropylene or plastic that has been molded into it and comes into contact with the liquid.

Varieties of Pipette

Pasteur Pipettes

It’s also often called eye droppers or just droppers. Conventionally, they’re created from glass, though plastic Pasteur Pipettes have outdated them These are particularly meant to mediate the switch of small quantities of liquids. These tubes are joined on the higher finish by a plastic or rubber bulb and taper all the way down to a small orifice on the backside finish. Teat pipette is a time period for combining a glass Pasteur pipette and a rubber bulb.

Types of Pipette
Varieties of Pipette

Volumetric pipettes

It’s also often called bulby pipette or stomach pipette. It’s generally utilized in analytical chemistry in making laboratory options from inventory and getting ready options for titration. Its bulb is sizable, and its half is lengthy and skinny. They’re only for fast measurements since they could be calibrated to offer a exact set quantity of liquid with an accuracy of as much as 4 important digits.

Graduated pipettes

Graduated pipettes are people who have indicated quantity increments alongside the tube. These pipettes, which are available in numerous shapes, are continuously employed for easy resolution transfers. They continuously have a tapered tip and are constructed of glass or sturdy plastic. Graduated pipettes may be divided into Sort 1, Sort 2, and Sort 3 classes primarily based on their development. All volumes of sort 1 pipettes have partially deliverable options. In distinction, sort 2 pipettes have zero on the backside and the nominal worth on the high, and kind 3 pipettes solely provide the answer on the nominal worth. Mohr pipettes and serological pipettes are the 2 most important classes of graduated pipettes.

i) Serological pipettes

These are utilized within the laboratory for light mixing of cell suspensions, reagents, and chemical options, creating gradients in reagent layering, transferring liquid (just a few mL to 100 mL), and volumetric measurements. Serological pipettes make it potential for cells to unfold equitably all through an answer, which is crucial for cell tradition.

ii) Mohr’s pipettes

The dimensions of a Mohr pipette is split into models of 1 and one-tenth of a milliliter. It’s much less exact than a volumetric pipette as a result of its huge neck. When taking a lot of options the place precision will not be a excessive precedence, they’re used. They’ll launch liquid steadily and are crammed equally to volumetric ones.

iii) Switch pipettes

These are disposable switch pipettes, one of many graduated pipettes that function an incredible different to Pasteur pipettes since one has to no extra fear in regards to the hazards of damaged glass and cross-contamination between samples. They’re employed in blood banking, urinalysis, moist chemistry, microbiology, hematology, and serology. The low affinity of the unbreakable low-density polyethylene plastic floor of those pipettes reduces the lack of cells and desired proteins as a result of binding as they’re inert to organic fluids and acids.

Vacuum-assisted Pipettes

Each graded and volumetric vacuum-assisted pipettes can be found. Whereas volumetric vacuum-assisted pipettes solely measure a single quantity and therefore solely have one commencement mark, graduated vacuum-assisted pipettes use a number of commencement marks. Polystyrene, glass, or borosilicate are used to create vacuum-assisted pipettes. They lack pistons however want a suction machine.

Repeater pipette

Repeater pipettes are good for shelling out the identical portions repeatedly into a number of receptacles with out pausing in between every shelling out course of, enhancing pace and effectivity. These are light-weight and solely require one hand to function, enabling a single operator to work at a throughput capability.

Single channel pipettes Vs. Multichannel pipettes

A single-channel pipette is a non-disposable instrument with an air-displacement design that generates exact measurement outcomes utilizing a single disposable tip. A multichannel pipette is corresponding to a single-channel pipette, besides it might maintain many ideas concurrently. The liquid is aspirated concurrently from the identical nicely into numerous channels.

Each handbook and digital single-channel variable quantity and stuck quantity pipettes are supplied, the place the handbook one is probably the most economical and the standard design. In distinction, the digital micropipette is dear and has a number of benefits, equivalent to improved ergonomics, fewer user-to-user variances, and extra accuracy and precision.

Handbook Vs. Digital pipette

A handbook pipette makes use of the mechanical effort of a thumb to maneuver the piston (as much as 3cm), whereas digital pipettes are designed to enhance ergonomics by decreasing the required drive. Digital pipettes thus substitute a tiny battery-powered electrical motor for handbook enter.

Mounted Vs. adjustable quantity pipette

Mounted-volume pipettes are finest fitted to working with dense or viscous liquids. The pipette’s quantity can’t be altered in a hard and fast quantity pipette which facilitates the consumer to function extra rapidly with out having to regulate the quantity usually. In distinction, an adjusted quantity pipette has the quantity altering the setting on the facet or high. Thus, a hard and fast quantity pipette is much less susceptible to errors, and its calibration is significantly less complicated and faster than an adjustable quantity pipette.

Particular goal pipette

These pipettes are devised for particular functions, equivalent to environmental hormone evaluation with glass tip Micropipettes and high-volume extremely macro-pipettes with a 50-milliliter quantity shelling out capability. Van Slyke pipettes, Ostwald-Folin pipettes, glass micropipettes, microfluidic pipettes, and very low-volume pipettes are just a few examples of specialty pipettes.

Working Process

The factors listed beneath point out dealing with a pipette (disposable one).

  1. Take a tip out of the tip field by loading it into the pipette.
  2. Utilizing the quantity adjustment spinning dial, modify the quantity to be transferred.
  3. Whereas sustaining a vertical grip on the pipette, press the plunger to the primary cease.
  4. Place the tip contained in the liquid element being sampled.
  5. With the tip nonetheless submerged, slowly launch the plunger to attract up the liquid. If the liquid is viscous, pause briefly on the very finish.
  6. Place the pipette’s tip contained in the tube or container the place the liquid is collected.
  7. Fully depress the plunger till it stops on the second cease level to deposit the liquid into the suitable tube.
  8. Press the ejector button to take away the used tip and place it within the correct rubbish can.

Functions of Pipette

  • It facilitates the even distribution of cells in cell seeding and avoids foaming and bubble formation.
  • It permits simple media change of T-flask cell cultures and maintains the sterility of the cultures, and prevents contamination.
  • 96 nicely microplates, continuously utilized in microplate purposes like ELISA, PCR, or cell tradition, are suitable with multichannel pipettes of 8 or 12-channel variants.
  • To aliquot, a reagent into a number of doses- a course of often called multi-dispensing- digital pipettes are employed.
  • Serological pipettes are employed in standard laboratory settings and purposes involving cell and tissue tradition.

Benefits of Pipette

  • Pipettes are comfy to make use of and are extra user-friendly.
  • It’s safer to deal with hazardous chemical compounds as in comparison with measuring cylinders.
  • Volumetric pipettes are extraordinarily correct and provides exact measurements whereas delivering options. The slender neck of the volumetric pipette facilitates the meniscus to be learn extra precisely.
  • Digital pipettes enhance productiveness within the lab by saving time and decreasing the probability of human error.
  • Multichannel pipettes are perfect for excessive accuracy, effectivity, and reproducibility of excessive throughput experiments.
  • It may be used with numerous liquids, together with foamy liquids, excessive vapor strain liquids, and liquids with a excessive viscosity.

Limitations of Pipette

  • Volumetric pipettes are extra pricey, and their measurements are mounted and particular to the person volumetric pipette.
  • Graduated pipettes are usually not exact when delivering and measuring liquid and bear a wider margin of human-use error.


  • Fill a pipette to the brim and drain it towards the receiving vessel’s inside wall. By no means drive any probably dangerous substance out of a pipette.
  • To scale back aerosol era, fastidiously take away the disposable pipette ideas. The aerosol formation will likely be diminished by a wetted towel positioned within the backside of the shelling out container, which is continuously a glass beaker. 
  • Mechanical pipetting tools is utilized; mouth pipetting will not be permitted.
  • Place reusable pipettes horizontally in a pan with sufficient liquid disinfectant to cowl them fully.

Examples of Pipette

Serological pipette PIP sequence (Haier Biomedical)

  • Serum pipettes are applicable for cell and tissue cultivation, in addition to different organic analysis.
  • They’re constructed of high-clarity polystyrene and are available in paper-plastic baggage which might be individually wrapped.
  • Completely different colours are used to differentiate pipettes of varied diameters.
  • No cytotoxicity, hemolysis, or pyrogens are current.
Examples of Pipette.

Handbook pipette IKA Pette vario 0020011210 (IKA)

  • IKA pipettes include replaceable grips in quite a lot of designs and supplies. Because of this, definitely, they may comfortably match within the palm.
  • Excessive-quality carbon with a diamond-like end is utilized to the tip cone and piston (DLC).
  • The tip cone’s resistance to impression, UV rays, and chemical compounds assure long-term, reliable dosing.

Digital pipette Xplorer®/Xplorer® plus (Eppendorf SE)

  • Easy, fast, and correct with fixed battery energy.
  • The one, 8, 12, 16, and 24-channel Eppendorf Xplorer digital pipettes are created to aspirate and dispense liquid volumes from 0.5 μL to 10 mL whereas eradicating many potential mistake dangers linked with handbook pipetting.

Handbook pipette PIPE-M12 (Bioevopeak)

  • The amount vary for pipettes is 0.5 μL to 300 μL.
  • Giant show home windows make loudness identification easy.
  • 96 nicely plates are appropriate for 12-channel pipettes.
  • Allotting head revolves for handy, simple pipetting.
  • A tip cone constructed of composite materials ensures sturdy sealing efficiency.

Pasteur pipette 148893 (Vitlab)

  • It’s disposable. The quantity of drops per milliliter has wonderful consistency, making it good for distributing liquid portions in aliquots.
  • Pasteur pipettes may be deep frozen when full or, if obligatory, heated-sealed to create sealed vessels. It’s easy to compress the inbuilt suction bulb.
  • Gasoline or gamma radiation can be utilized to sterilize.


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