HomeNASAChinese language Accomplished Area Station, Set New Launch Report in 2022

Chinese language Accomplished Area Station, Set New Launch Report in 2022

China had a extremely profitable 2022 in house because it accomplished preliminary building of its Tiangong house station, launched two crews to occupy it, and set a brand new nationwide report with 64 launch makes an attempt.

Human Spaceflight

Shenzhou-13 taikonauts Zhai Zhigang, Wang Yaping and Ye Guangfu returned to Earth on April 16. They had been the second crew to occupy the Tiangong house station, and the primary to spend six months aboard. The taikonauts set a brand new report for Chinese language human spaceflight.

The Shenzhou-14 crew of Chen Dong, Liu Yang and Cai Xuzhe had been launched to the house station on June 5. Their six-month mission can be crucial but as they’d be on board for the arrival and commissioning of two science modules.

Chinese language Wentian house station module (Credit score: Leebrandoncremer, CC BY-SA 4.0)

The 23-metric ton (25.4 ton) Wentian module was launched on July 24, docking with the station early the following day after a 13-hour flight.

The 17.9 meter (58.7 ft) lengthy module consists of laboratory tools for all times sciences, biotechnology and variable gravity experiments. The module additionally has 22 exterior mounting units for the attachment of unpressurized experiments. Wentian incorporates a robotic arm that’s half the scale because the one mounted on the surface of the Tianhe core module.

Wentian consists of three sleeping berths, a kitchen and a bathroom to accommodate the enlargement of the station’s full-time complement from three to 6 taikonauts. The module will present further propulsion, management and avionics to again up the Tianhe core module. Wentian is powered by two photo voltaic panels.

Chinese language Mengtian house station module (Credit score: Leebrandoncremer, CC BY-SA 4.0)

A Lengthy March 5B launched the Mengtian module on Oct. 31.Mengtian is similar dimension and fundamental configuration because the Wentian module. It supplied more room for experiments and storage.

Each modules had been launched by Lengthy March 5B rockets which have a novel characteristic: the large core stage enters orbit with no option to deorbit it in a managed manner over some distant a part of the ocean. Thus, the core stage retains circling the Earth over many of the planet’s inhabitants, getting ever decrease as analysts attempt to determine the place it’s going to rain down particles after it hits the ambiance.

To this point, the world has dodged a bullet. There have been no reviews of accidents or property injury. NASA has condemned this apply, however to no avail.

Tiangong Launches and Return Flights
2 Crew
2 Resupply
2 Station Modules

Date Launch Automobile Launch Website Spacecraft Objective Crew
April 16, 2022 Shenzhou-13 Crew return Zhai Zhigang, Wang Yaping, Ye Guangfu (launched Oct. 15, 2021)
Could 9, 2022 Lengthy March 7 Wenchang Tianzhou 4 Resupply None
June 5, 2022 Lengthy March 2F Jiuquan Shenzhou-14 Crew launch Chen Dong, Liu Yang, Cai Xuzhe
July 24, 2022 Lengthy March 5B Wenchang Wentian Station module None
Oct. 31, 2022 Lengthy March 5B Wenchang Mengtian Station module None
Nov. 9, 2022 Tianzhou-4 Resupply ship departure None
Nov. 12, 2022 Lengthy March 7 Wenchang Tianzhou-5 Resupply None
Nov. 29, 2022 Lengthy March 2F Jiuquan Shenzhou-15 Crew launch Fei Junlong, Deng Qingming, Zhang Lu

The Shenzhou 14 crew performed quite a few experiments and three house walks totaling almost 16 hours throughout their six-month mission.

The Shenzhou-15 crew of Fei Junlong, Deng Qingming and Zhang Lu had been launched on Nov. 29 for the primary on-orbit handover of the house station. Tiangong had been left empty when the primary two crews departed.

The crew of Shenzhou-14 returned to Earth on Dec. 4 after 182 days in house.

Launch of a Lengthy March 6 rocket. (Credit score: CASC)

Launch Statistics

China set a brand new report final yr by launching 64 instances, with 62 successes and two failures. The full exceeded that of the earlier yr when the nation performed 53 profitable launches and suffered three failures.

The federal government-owned China Aerospace Science and Expertise Company (CASC) launched 53 instances with out failure. That positioned CASC in second place behind SpaceX, which launched 61 instances final yr.

Chinese language Launches

Launch Automobile Firm Successes Failures Complete
Lengthy March 2 CASC* 24 0 24
Lengthy March 4 CASC 11 0 11
Kuaizhou-1A ExPace 4 0 4
Lengthy March 3B/E CASC 4 0 4
Lengthy March 11, 11H CASC 4 0 4
Lengthy March 7, 7A CASC 3 0 3
Lengthy March 5B CASC 2 0 2
Lengthy March 6 CASC 2 0 2
Lengthy March 6A CASC 2 0 2
Ceres-1 Galactic Vitality 2 0 2
Kuaizhou 11 ExPace 1 0 1
Lengthy March 8 CASC 1 0 1
Jielong-3 China Rocket 1 0 1
ZK-1A CAS Area 1 0 1
Hyperbola-1 i-Area 0 1 1
Zhuque-2 (ZQ-2) LandSpace 0 1 1
Complete 62 2 64
* China Aerospace Science and Expertise Company

CASC’s Lengthy March 6A made its maiden flight in March. Lengthy March 6A has two YF-100 engines on its first stage as a substitute of 1 on the Lengthy March 6. It additionally has 4 strong rocket boosters the place Lengthy March 6 has none. Lengthy March 6A can place 4,500 kg (9,921 lb) right into a 700 km (435 mile) excessive solar synchronous orbit. Lengthy March 6 can launch 1,080 kg (2,381 lb) into the identical orbit.

Six different corporations — some non-public, others subsidiaries of state-owned corporations — performed 9 profitable launches and skilled two failures. Most of the corporations used solid-fuel boosters believed to be tailored from intercontinental ballistic missiles.

Chinese language Industrial Launches

Firm Sort Launch Automobile Launches End result
ExPace Public Kuaizhou 1A 4 Success
Kuaizhou 11+ 1 Success
Galactic Vitality Non-public Ceres-1 2 Success
CAS Area Public/non-public Zhongke-1A (ZK-1A)* 1 Success
China Rocket Public Jielong 3 (Sensible Dragon 3)* 1 Success
LandSpace Non-public Zhuque-2* 1 Failure
i-space Non-public Hyperbola-1 1 Failure
+ First profitable launch
* Maiden launch

ExPace launched 4 Kuaizhou 1A rockets and one Kuaizhou 11 booster final yr. The corporate is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the government-owned China Aerospace Science & Business Company (CASIC).

Kuaizhou 1A has a report of 16 successes and two failures. Kuaizhou 11 has a report of 1-1, having failed on its maiden flight in 2020.

Launch Automobile Capabilities

Launch Automobile Firm LEO SSO
(500 km/311 miles)
(700 km/435 miles)
Hyperbola-1 i-space 300 kg (661 lb)
Kuaizhou 1A ExPace 300 kg (661 lb) 250 kg (551 lb) 200 kg (441 lb)
Ceres-1 Galactic Vitality 400 kg (882 lb) 300 kg (661 lb)
Kuaizhou 11 ExPace 1,500 kg (3,307 lb) 1,000 kg (2,205 lb)
Jielong 3 (Sensible Dragon 3) China Rocket 1,500 kg (3,307 lb)
Zhongke-1A (ZK-1A) CAS Area 2,000 kg (4,409 lb) 1,500 kg ( 3,307 lb)
Zhuque-2 (ZQ-2) LandSpace 4,000 kg (8,818 lb) 2,000 kg (4,409 lb)

Privately-held Galactic Vitality launched its Ceres-1 booster two instances final yr. The rocket has a report of 5-0.

CAS Area’s Zhongke-1A (ZK-1A) rocket succeeded on its maiden flight from the Jiuquan Satellite tv for pc Launch Heart. CAS Area is a partly owned by the Chinese language Academy of Sciences.

China Rocket succeeded in launching its four-stage, solid-fuel Jielong 3 (Sensible Dragon 3) rocket on its maiden flight. The booster positioned 14 satellites into orbit on a rideshare mission. China Rocket is a subsidiary of the government-owned China Academy of Launch Automobile Expertise, which itself is a subsidiary of CASC.

Maiden Flights of Chinese language Rockets

Launcher Firm First Launch End result
Lengthy March 6A CASC March 29, 2022 Success
Zhongke-1A (ZK-1A) CAS Area July 27, 2022 Success
Jielong-3 (Sensible Dragon 3) China Rocket Dec. 9, 2022 Success
Zhuque-2 LandSpace Dec. 14, 2022 Failure

LandSpace didn’t have the identical success with the maiden flight of its liquid-fuel Zhuque-2 (ZQ-2) launch automobile. The booster’s second stage vernier engine failed after launch from the Jiuquan spaceport. It was the primary launch try of a rocket fueled by liquid methane.

i-space Hyperbola-1 rocket failed in Could. It was the booster’s third failure in 4 launches since its maiden flight in July 2019.

Satellites Launched

China launched 182 satellites final yr. The highest satellites by operate had been Earth remark, reconnaissance, know-how demonstration, communications, navigation and house station help.

High Chinese language Satellite tv for pc Launches by Perform

Perform Quantity
Earth remark 83
Reconnaissance 27
Expertise demonstration 18
Communications 13
Navigation & communications 9
Area station help 6
Navigation 4
Supply: Wikipedia

Chang Guang Satellite tv for pc Expertise had 54 satellites launched, together with 51 Earth remark spacecraft. The Chinese language Academy of Sciences was second with 36 satellites, together with 25 reconnaissance spacecraft.

Chinese language Launches by Location

Jiuquan Satellite tv for pc Launch Heart was probably the most used Chinese language spaceport final yr with 25 launches. That put the spaceport behind Cape Canaveral Area Power Station in Florida the place 38 launches had been performed. (Florida hosted 57 orbital launches when the adjoining Kennedy Area Heart is included.)

CASC launched 17 instances from Jiuquan. CAS Area, ExPace, Galactic Vitality, i-space and LandSpace performed eight launches from the spaceport.

Chinese language Launches by Location

Launch Website Successes Failures Complete
Jiuquan 23 2 25
Taiyuan 14 0 14
Xichang 16 0 16
Wenchang 6 0 6
East China Sea 1 0 1
Yellow Sea 2 0 2
62 2 64

The rise within the variety of Chinese language launches has made the nation’s 4 spaceports a lot busier. To alleviate a few of that stress, three launches had been performed from platforms within the East China and Yellow seas.



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